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名称:PlaceChannelconflict

类型:人力其它资料

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PlaceChannelconflict简介:

PlaceChannelconflict 34页-36THEMcKINSEYQUARTERLY1997NUMBER3MARKETINGChristineBucklinandPamelaThomas-GrahamareprincipalsinMcKinseyÕsLosAngelesandNewYorkoÄÞces,respectively.LizWebsterisaconsultantintheChicagooÄÞce.Copyright©1997McKinsey&Company.Allrightsreserved.ChristineB.Bucklin,PamelaA.Thomas-Graham,andElizabethA.WebsterACTION-PLUSTHEMcKINSEYQUARTERLY1997NUMBER337Channelconßict:Whenisitdangerous?MANUFACTURERSTODAYselltheirproductsthroughadizzyingarrayofchannels,fromWal-MarttotheWorldWideWebandeverywhereinbetween.Sincemostmanufacturerssellthroughseveralchannelssimultaneously,channelssometimesÞndthemselvescompetingtoreachthesamesetofcustomers.Whenthishappens,channelconßictisvirtuallyguaranteed.SuchconßictalmostinvariablyÞndsitswaybacktothemanufacturer.Conßictcomesinmanyforms.SomeisinnocuousÐmerelythenecessaryfrictionofacompetitivebusinessenvironment.Someisactuallypositiveforthemanufacturer,forcingout-of-dateoruneconomicplayerstoadaptorSeparatingcomplaintsfromeconomicrealityWhenthereisaconßict,thereareeÄfectiveoptionsDonÕtoverreact,butdonÕtgetparalyzedeitherTheauthorswouldliketothankTanujaRanderyandNinaEigermanfortheircontributionstothisarticle.perish.Butsomeistrulydangerous,capableofunderminingtheeconomicsofeventhebestproduct.Dangerousconßictgenerallyoccurswhenonechanneltargetscustomersegmentsalreadyservedbyanexistingchannel.Thisleadstosuchadeteriorationofchanneleconomicsthatthethreatenedchanneleitherretaliatesagainstthemanufacturerorsimplystopssellingitsproduct.Ineithercase,themanufacturersuÄfers.Thestakescanbehigh.ConsiderafewexamplesfromtheUnitedStates.HillÕsScienceDietpetfoodlostagreatdealofsupportinpetshopsandfeedstoresasaresultofthecompanyÕsexperimentswithaÒstorewithinastoreÓpetshopconceptinthecompetinggrocerychannel.Intheautomarket,ATK,thedominantsellerofreplacementenginesforJapanesecars,lostitsvirtualmonopolywhenitattemptedtoundercutdistributorsandselldirecttoindividualmechanicsandinstallers.QuakerOatsÕrecent$1.4billionwriteoÄffromthedivestitureofitsSnapplebusinesswascausedinpartbychannelconßict.QuakerhadplannedtoconsolidateitshighlyeÄÞcientgrocerychannelsupportingtheGatoradebrandwithSnappleÕschannelsforreachingconveniencestores.SnappledistributorsweresupposedtofocusondeliveringsmallquantitiesofbothbrandstoconveniencestoreaccountswhileGatoradeÕswarehousedeliverychannelhandledlargerorderstogrocerychainsandmajoraccounts,leveragingQuakerÕsestablishedstrengthinthisarea.However,thestrategybackÞred.AsQuakersuggestedmovinglargerSnappleaccountstoGatoradeÕsdeliverysystem,SnappleÕsdistributorsrevolted.TheysawthevalueoftheirSnapplebusinessasanexclusivegeographicfranchisethatthesplitchannelstrategywouldundermine.SeveralSnappledistributorstooklegalactionagainstQuaker.Thecompanyultimatelybackeddown,butthedisputehadcreatedaconsiderabledistractionatatimewhencompetitionfromArizonaandNantucketNectarswasintensifying.IdentifyingathreatWhileitisclearthatsomechannelconßictcanbedevastating,manymanufacturershaveahardtimeÞguringoutexactlywhichconßictswillposeathreat.Webelievethekeytospottingdangersaheadliesinansweringfoursimplequestions:First,arethechannelsreallyattemptingtoservethesameendusers?WhatmaylooklikeaconßictissometimesanopportunityforgrowthasanewchannelCHANNELCONFLICT:WHENISITDANGEROUS?38THEMcKINSEYQUARTERLY1997NUMBER3ManymanufacturershaveahardtimeÞguringoutexactlywhichconßictswillposeathreatreachesamarketthatwaspreviouslyunserved.WhenCoca-ColainstalleditsÞrstvendingmachinesinJapan,forinstance,retailersobjected.However,thecompanysucceededinshowingthatwhilethevendingmachinesdidindeedservethesamecustomers,theydidsoondiÄferentoccasionsandoÄfereddifferentvaluepropositions.ItwasabletocountertheretailersÕnoisycomplaintswitheconomicrealities.Inasimilarway,companieslikeCharlesSchwabareusingonlinechannelstosatisfylatentconsumerdemandfornewapproachestopersonalÞnancialservices,suchaslowpricescombinedwithabundant,readilyaccessibleinformationfortheÒdo-it-yourselfÓcustomersegment.Second,hannelsmistakenlybelievetheyarecompetingwheninfacttheyarebeneÞtingfromeachotherÕsactions?Newchannelssometimesappeartobeinconßictwithexistingoneswheninrealitytheyareexpandingproductusageorbuildingbrandsupport.Nike,forinstance,hasforwardintegratedintoNikeTownßagshipstoresthathaveenhancedbrandawarenessandprestigeandgiventhecompanymorecontroloverbrandimage.ThoughcompetingathleticsstoresbalkedatÞrst,thenewstoreisthoughttohaveboostedsalesacrossallchannels.ThecollaborationofpublisherswithnewInternetbooksellerAmazon.comtoenablebookstobesoldonlineandreducereturnrateshasforcedcategorykillerslikeBordersandBarnes&Nobletoentertheonlinearena.Althoughitisstilltooearlytotell,thisstrategymayexpandthemarketforbooksasconsumersenjoyeasieraccesstotheproductandusetoolssuchasEYES,AmazonÕsbrowser,toobtainadditionalinformationonnewtitles.Ininsurance,ProgressiveAutoInsurancehassuccessfullyintroduceddirecttelephonesalesalongsideitsagencychannel.Auto-Proprovidesa24-hourreferralservicetoagentsaspartoftheservice.Avonappearstobefollowingasimilarstrategyincosmetics:itssoontobelaunchedInternetsitewillpermitbothdirecttransactionsandreferralstoAvonsalesrepresentatives.WebelievethateÄfortslikethesewillactuallyenhancesalesinotherchannels,notcannibalizethem.Third,isthedeterioratingproÞtabilityofagripingplayergenuinelytheresultofanotherchannelÕsencroachment?Pooroperations,notconßict,maybethecauseofadeclineinachannelÕscompetitiveness.Whenaweakoperatoristheonlyvoicecomplainingaboutconßict,manufacturersshouldassessthelikelihoodthatitsbusinesswillfailandestimatehowmuchrevenuetheywouldloseifitdid.TheyshouldthendecidewhethertosupporttheplayermoreactivelyordevelopamigrationstrategytoreplacelostproÞtsbyusingother,moreviableintermediarieswithinthechannel.SelectingtherightpartnerwithinachannelisoÄtenasimportantastrategicdecisionasdeterminingwhichchannelstouse.ToavoidbecomingdependentCHANNELCONFLICT:WHENISITDANGEROUS?THEMcKINSEYQUARTERLY1997NUMBER339onunsuitablepartners,manufacturersshouldmonitortheoperationsofchannelpartnersandworktodeveloptheirskillsandcapabilities.TheymayalsoÞndithelpfultoswitchpartnersfromtimetotime.Fourth,willachannelÕsdeclinenecessarilyharmamanufacturerÕsproÞts?ChannelssometimesdeterioratebecauseofeconomicshiÄtsandchangesinconsumerpreferences.AcaseinpointisthedeclineofuneconomicmediumsizedcigarettedistributorsandjobbersintheUnitedStatesduringthe1970sand1980s.Thesecompanieswererelicsofaneraofhighlyfragmentedsalesanddistribution.Cigarettebrandleadersrefusedtopropthemup,puttingtheirmightbehindlarger,moreeconomicplayersinstead.Morerecently,largepharmaceuticalcompaniesandtheirdistributorshaverefusedtoreducetheirproÞtmarginstosupportindependentpharmacists.Instead,theyhavechosentofavorHMOsandmail-orderpharmacieswithcheaperpricesforbulkorderssoastodeveloprelationshipswiththesenewandincreasinglyimportantchannels.Independentdrugstoresdemandingequaltreatmentlaunchedafederalcourtantitrustsuitthatisyettoberesolved.Ifachannelisdecliningbecauseoftheemergenceofacompetingchannelthatconsumersprefer,themanufacturerÕsstrategicprioritymustbetoalignwiththenewchannel.Thetrickistodosowithoutprovokingthewrathofthedecliningchannel,especiallyifitcontinuestocarrysigniÞcantvolume.IntheUnitedStates,specialtypetfoodproducersareactivelyaligningwithtwoemergingcategorykillers,PETsMARTandPetco,whilesimultaneouslysupportingtheeconomicsofsmallpetshops.Theselatterplayersareclearlyindecline,butstillrepresent60percentofspecialtypetfoodvolume.Similarly,whenGoodyearenteredmassmerchantchannels,itkeptindependentdealershappybyintroducingspeciallydesignedprogramstodrivesharegrowthinthetirereplacementmarket.WhentoactAnsweringthesefourquestionsgivesmanufacturersabetterunderstandingofwhichchannelconßictsaretrulydangerous.IfaconßictisdestructiveandasubstantialamountofcurrentorfuturevolumepassesthroughtheoÄfendedchannel,manufacturersmustacttoalleviatethesituationExhibit1.Inmakingajudgment,manufacturersshouldcomparetheCHANNELCONFLICT:WHENISITDANGEROUS?40THEMcKINSEYQUARTERLY1997NUMBER3Exhibit1Decision-makingframeworkProspectofdestructiveconflictImportanceofthreatenedchannelintermsofcurrentorpotentialvolumeorprofitabilityHighÒfireÓLowÒsmokeÓHighLowActtoavertoraddressconflictAllowthreatenedchanneltodeclineLookforopportunitiestoreassurethreatenedchannelandleverageyourpowerDonothingcostofpreservingthevolumeandrelatedproÞtsoftheexistingchannelwiththeeconomicbeneÞtofenteringanewchannel,takingintoaccountthelikelihoodofretaliationandthecostsitmightinvolve.Scenarioplanningorgametheorycanbeusedtopredictchannelresponsesandtoestimatethecostoftakingnoaction.However,asageneralrule,achannelindistressthatisnotindeclineandcarriesmorethan10to15percentofvolumeand/orproÞtneedsattention.AvertingchanneldisasterIfamanufacturerdeterminesthatchannelconßictispotentiallydangerous,thenextquestionisexactlywhattodoaboutit.Exhibit2outlinesavarietyofwaystotacklechannelconßictatdifferentstagesinitsdevelopment.Ifconßicthasrecentlyarisenbetweenchannelsfocusedonthesamesegments,asuppliermightrespondbyintroducingseparateproductsorbrandstailoredtoeachchannel.Black&Decker,forinstance,oÄfersthreediÄferentrangesviathreediÄferentchannels.Forcasualdo-it-yourselfers,itmarketstheBlack&DeckerrangethroughK-Martandsimilaroutlets.TheneedsofseriousenthusiastsaremetbytheQuantumbrand,introducedin1993andstockedbyTheHomeDepot.Finally,DeWaltproducts,launchedbackin1991,aredesignedfortheprofessionalcontractororbuilderwhopurchasesfromtradedealers.Similarly,Kendall-JacksonnowoÄferswinesalesontheInternetin13ofthe50Americanstates.Thewinessoldonline,suchasArtisans&Estates,areelycarriedbyK-JÕsretailchannels,whichstockmorepopularbrandssuchasVintnerÕsReserveandGrandReserve.ThecompanyalsopricesitsInternetCHANNELCONFLICT:WHENISITDANGEROUS?THEMcKINSEYQUARTERLY1997NUMBER341Exhibit2TenwaystomanagechannelconflictTwoormorechannelstargetthesamecustomersegments1.Differentiatechanneloffer2.Defineexclusiveterritories3.EnhanceorchangethechannelÕsvaluepropositioneg,bybuildingskillsinvaluechainChanneleconomicsdeteriorate4.ChangethechannelÕseconomicformula:¥Grantrebatesifanintermediaryfulfillscertainprogramrequirements¥Adjustmarginsbetweenproductstosupportdifferentchanneleconomics¥Treatchannelsfairlytocreatelevelplayingfield5.Createsegment-specificprogramseg,certainservicesnotavailableviadirectchannels6.Complementvaluepropositionoftheexistingchannelbyintroducinganewchannel7.FosterconsolidationamongintermediariesinadecliningchannelThreatenedchannelstopsperformingorretaliatesagainstthesupplier8.Leveragepowereg,astrongbrandagainstthechanneltopreventretaliation9.Migratevolumetowinningchanneleg,towarehouseclubsforpackagedgoods10.BackoffoÄferingsatthehighendofstreetpricestoavoidchannelconßict,andaddsvaluebyprovidingguidanceforprospectivebuyers.ItsWebsiteincludesover150pagesofinformationtargetedatnovice,intermediate,andadvancedwinelovers.AnothercompanyusingadiÄferentiatedbrandstrategytoservemultiplesegmentssimultaneouslyisLeviStrauss.IttargetsBritanniajeansandLevibrandedcasualweartomoderate-incomefamiliesviadiscountchainssuchasWal-MartandTarget,whileaimingkersandSilverTabclothingatfashion-consciousyoungadultswhoshopindepartmentstoresandspecialtyretailers.YoungprofessionalsinsearchofbusinesscasualweararecateredforbySlates,onsaleinMacyÕs,BloomingdaleÕs,andotherupmarketdepartmentstores,whileattheoppositeendofthescale,bargainhunterscanÞndoverstocksandseasonal,discontinued,ordamagedmerchandisefromallrangesbyshoppinginLeviÕsownoutlets.Alternatively,amanufacturercancreatetheillusionofdiÄferentiationbyusingdiÄferentnamesandnumbersforthesameitemsandintroducingminorproductmodiÞcations.Inthemattressindustry,forexample,majorsuppliersoÄfersimilaroridenticalproductsthroughdiÄferentchannelsunderdiÄferentnames.CustomersareconfusedbywhatappeartobehundredsofdiÄferentmodelsÐsomuchso,infact,thatsavvyretailerscompilelistsofcomparableproductsassalestools.Similarly,consumerelectronicscompaniessometimesallocatediÄferentmodelnumberstothesameproductindiÄferentchannels.However,thisapproachmaynowbelosingground.Ratherthanrelyingonmodelnumbers,consumersareincreasinglyusingbuyingguidesmanyofthemavailableontheInternettomakeobjectivecomparisonsoffeaturesandprices.AnotherapproachmanufacturersmightadoptistodividechannelrolessothatindividualchannelsareconÞnedtoperformingspeciÞcfunctionsinthevaluedeliverychain.Thatcouldmeanallocatingexclusiveterritories,orsimplyimprovingthedeÞnitionandenforcementofrolesandtermswithinachannel,ascopiermanufacturerssuchasKodakdidtosettlethewarbetweenvalue-addedsuppliersandbrokers.Manufacturerscouldalsoconsiderimprovingtheeconomicsofadecliningchannel,whichoÄtenimprovesitsperformanceatthesametime.Theymight,forinstance,oÄferrebatesifanintermediarysatisÞescertainrequirementsforvalue-addedservice,oradjustmarginsbetweenproductstoreßecttheservicesoÄferedbydistributors.In1992,GEÕsappliancedivisionstrengtheneditsdealernetworkandretailbusinessbyintroducingextensivesupportprogramstohelpdealersandbuildersremaincompetitive.Itadoptedatwo-tierapproach.OntheoneCHANNELCONFLICT:WHENISITDANGEROUS?42THEMcKINSEYQUARTERLY1997NUMBER3hand,itoÄfereditsdealerssimilarpurchasediscountstothosereceivedbylargeretailers,coupledwithÞnancialadviceandinventorysystemsupport.Ontheother,itprovidedcapitalintheformoffavorableloanprogramstohelpdealersÞnancetheremodelingoftheirstores.Asaresult,theGEdivisionexpandeditsmarketsharefrom27percentin1992to30percentin1996,despiteintensecompetition.Inasimilarvein,SearsoÄfersappliancedealersinruralareasÞnancing,systemssupport,andhelpinmanagingaccountingandinventory.IfoverlapandfallingchannelproÞtsareunavoidable,manufacturersmustassesswhethertheycanwithstandtheretaliationoftheirchannel.OÄten,though,achannelwillbereluctanttoretaliatebecauseretaliationwouldhurtitmorethantheconßictdoes.Thisisusuallythecasewhenitisthemanufacturerratherthanthechannelthatreallyownsthecustomer.Leadingconsumergoodscompaniesmayalsobeabletoleveragetheirpowerfulbrandsagainstachanneltopreventretaliation,asProcter&Gambledidwhenthenewclubchannelemergedandtookvolumefromgrocerystores.Alternatively,asuppliercanacceptthatachannelwillreact,butlimittheconsequencesbyacceleratingthemigrationofvolumetoacompetingchannel.AirlineshavepursuedthisapproachbyencouragingashiÄtinsalesvolumefromcostlyagencynetworkstodirectchannelsandticketlesstraveloptions.Inafewcontentiouscases,manufacturershavehadnochoicebuttobackdown.IBMÕsPCgrouptookthispathwhenitsattemptstoselldirectweremetwithvehementobjectionsfromitsdistributornetwork.Theproblemofhowtogodirectremainsunresolved,butthehemorrhagingofIBMÕssalesandmarketsharehasbeenslowed.WhenBassAlepilotedahomedeliveryserviceintheUnitedKingdominNovember1995,cash-and-carrywarehousesandconveniencestoresprotested,fearingtheywouldlosebusiness.Nurdin&Peacock,aleadingcash-andcarryoperatorsellingtoindependentretailers,withdrewtenBassbeersfromitsshelvesandencourageditscustomerstoavoidBassproducts.Bassabandonedthepilot.Channelconßictisinevitable,butnotallconßictsareequallydangerous.UnderstandingaconßictÕssourceanditstruegravityliesatthecoreofgoodchannelmanagement.Genuinelydestructiveconßictisrarerthanmostcompaniessuppose.Thebestmanufacturersrecognizedestructivechannelconßictquickly,rethinktheirchannelstrategies,andnipconßictinthebud.Lesssophisticatedplayerseitheroverreacttominorconßictor,fearfulofdestabilizingtheirchannelrelationships,becomeparalyzedandfailtoactatall.CHANNELCONFLICT:WHENISITDANGEROUS?THEMcKINSEYQUARTERLY1997NUMBER343
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